Sunday, July 17, 2011

How JSONP Works

So recently I was having a conversation with someone about my JSONP update for the ExtJS library. We were talking about how I added error handling to their default implementation, and exactly what trick I had used to do that. However, we should probably start at the beginning...

What is JSONP, and how does it work?

JSONP is a standard (a hack really) that allows you to make AJAX requests across different domains. While this is an obvious security risk, there are also times where do right necessary.

Your browser appends a script block to your webpage that points to the foreign domain. Because of this, the JSONP request must be a simple get request that returns raw JavaScript.

So, what's the catch?

The return format for the JSONP request must be in the form of a call to a single global function. Once loaded, the script will execute and immediately call the global handler, which should know how to get the request data back to its caller. Also, depending on your browser, the script block may fire an onload (or in the hacky IE world, an onclick) event to help get the data back to its proper location.

The even trickier part is error handling, as there are no universal events to report script load failures.

Error Handling with JSONP

Ok, we are finally back on topic! As far as I know there are only three basic solutions to this problem...

Bad) No error handling at all.
Obviously this is a crappy solution, but it is what the default ExtJS implementation does. Somehow I suspect this lack of error handling support is 'justified' by saying that you shouldn't be using JSONP in the first place.

Better) Check for success after your max time out.
This is what my ExtJS implementation does. Before the request is made I set a timeout to call back 1 second after the max timeout of the request. The global handler calls a function that updates the JSONP request queue, canceling the timeout. If the time out is not canceled, it is assumed that the request failed and an error handler is called. This is much better than having now error handling, but it is still rather mediocre, as it could cause your end user to wait 30 seconds to find out about an error that happened 29 seconds ago.

Best) Wire up to state change events for the script block.
This is what the jQuery JSONP plugin does. Obviously this is the best solution, as it is using events exactly as they are supposed to be. The problem of course is that it has to support all the different browsers and all their different events.

In Summary

JSONP is useful, and is pretty easy to use. Implementing your own client side JSONP solution is kind of tricky, especially when taking error handling into account.

I have been trying to update my JSONP implementation to support additional error handling events, but so far it has proven to be rather difficult. Hopefully we'll see a 3.0 in the not too distant future, but right now I need to go watch the 2011 Womens World Cup Final! :D


PS: Hopefully I will get the opporutnity to talk about this at SenchaCon 2011 in Austin if you haven't yet, go sign up!

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